Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Drogues in Action--Small Scale Testing Duplicates Gale Conditions

Why the interest in drogue if I'm not going to cross an ocean? "As a coastal sailor, why should I care?" Because a little over two years ago I bent a rudder on a submerged log. Only because I had a catamaran did this avoid becoming a serious problem (I have a spare rudder). Other wise, take your hands off the wheel and tell me how you plan on getting back home. It's not that easy.

However, this post is not about emergency steering. I'll get to that later. This is about drogues for speed limitation is serious storms. It turns out that they have not been telling us the who story.

___________________

Parachute sea anchor, speed limiting drogue, or JSD (Jordan Series Drogue).  Sailors that have never used them will argue, and even those that have used them generally remember what they saw but don't understand it. My nature is to expereiment until I understand.

 How many people have a full collection of 1/3 scale drogues? [Cone, Small Shark, Delta Drogue, Gale Rider, Sea Brake]

Small Scale Testing

The trouble with testing full scale drogues is that you need a full-scale storm to test them in, and mistakes have full scale consequences. Not a forgiving classroom in which to demonstrate things things that fail, and only by knowing what fails can we understand what works. It is also a mistake to build a scale model and believe everything you see, without understanding the theory and how scale up works for engineers. But that is how I have spent the last 30 years, so I know a few tricks.

These drogues are 1/3 scale, run at 80% speed, in smaller waves, and at reduced scope. Combined, these scale factors give a realistic picture of how a speed limiting drogue functions in gale conditions. In the first example I show a Seabrake 8 standing in for the real-world Seabrake 24. Like all drogues, it pulls out of the water only when a following wave catches it; at that moment,  the angle of the rode to the water suddenly becomes steep, like an anchor on short scope, and out she comes. As soon as the wave passes, she settles back into the wave face. The conditions were mild.

video

In the real world the danger here is three fold:
  1. A wave may strike the boat while the drogue is out of the water. Not very likely in a moderate storm.
  2. In a serious storm, the drogue may spring out of the wave and be thrown far forward. Sailors often claim the wave threw it forward but they are only 1/3 right. The greatest factor is actually the contraction of the nylon rode (think rubber band) as the tension comes off, and that of the wind. This effect was minor in the video because the rode is oversized compared to common practice. This is also part of the case for using a polyester rode with a drogue and not the more common nylon. Several manufacturers specify non-stretch rodes.
  3. As the storm builds, right when you most need the drogue to work, it will fail. That is when the load is peak (required to pull the drogue out) and that is when the waves get steeper.
I then added a second drogue in tandem, 30 feet farther back (Delta Drogue 24, standing in for a Delta Drogue 72). The conditions are also now near gale force (sustained over 30 knots with heavy rain). As you can see, the first drogue runs closer to the surface, the result of the secondary rode tension. On the other hand, the secondary rode stabilizes the primary drogue when it does pull out of a wave, pulling it back in quickly. The first drogue may take slightly more of a beating on the surface, but the pull, measured by load cells, is far more stable (15% fluctuation vs. 60% fluctuation). A fair trade-off.

These waves are only about 5 feet, but considering the scale factor, these are 15-foot breaking waves. Pretty tough.


It is worth remembering that both of these trial were at the same speed (4 knots). In reality, adding a second drogue will slow the boat significantly, also making the tandem drogue far more stable. Another way of looking at it is that a tandem drogue can handle 40% more wind (70 knots vs 50 knots sustained) before the first drogue begins pulling out--a pretty big difference--and far more if we consider overall stability of the combined system.

_________________


 Gale Rider 30. A little small as a speed limiting brake (they make larger sizes), but my favorite for emergency steering. Very smooth and easy to handle.

The other things to consider are these:
  • Redundancy. You have two.
  • You can adjust to the strength of the storm.\
  •  Smaller drogues can be carried. This is no joke on a larger boat, since large drogues get very physical to handle in a blow. I later tested full scale models in gale conditions, and it was a workout.
  • A smaller drogue is more useful for emergency steering. This gives you the ability to transition between emergency steering and speed limiting.
However, full-scale speed limiting drogues and emergency steering are for future posts.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

When to Splice


There's a lot of snobbery surrounding splices and knots, as though knots are only used by hacks that can't splice. The thing is, I know perfectly well how to splice most materials--I've published several articles on testing of splices and knots--but I only splice when it is the logical answer. In fact, I find it embarrassing to have splices where a knot is the better choice.

It comes down to four differences:
  1. knots are easier to redo
  2. splices are stronger
  3. splices are lower profile but longer
  4. knots are more abrasion resistant in double braid

The Marlow Splicing Fid is my long-time favorite for 3-strand. You push it through to open a spot, insert the strand, no matter how frayed, and it pulls it back through. Very fast.




When to Splice.

High Strength
  • Docklines
  • Rode-to-Chain
  • Snubbers
  • Safety Tethers 
  • Jacklines
Won't Hold a Knot. This means Dyneema/Spectra in most cases. Fortunately, a bury splice is dead simple and a brummel not much more difficult.

No Room. Rubbing with tackle. Sometimes a knot will get in the way, though often this can be avoided by trying a different knot or rotating it 180 degrees.

Snagging. Splices are generally smoother to run, though flipping a knot over can help.
  • Genoa Sheets
  • Safety Tethers. 
Can't be Constructed Any Other Way
  • Soft Shackles
  • Adjustable Stropes
Adjustable strope. From "Keeping a Cruising Boat on Peanuts."

The Brian Toss Wand is my favorite for double braid. I use a cut-off hollow knitting needle for single braid.


    When Not to Splice

    Must be Re-Made at Some Frequency.
    • Halyards. First, I like to cut a few inches off every few years to move any chafe spots. Second, halyards are sized for stretch, not strength, and as a result are massively over strength. 
    • Most tackles. Should they twist-up or a component fail, knots are easier to re-do.
    Splice Will Jam. A splice makes the rope fatter. Sometimes this causes a jam in a block. It also keeps tackles farther apart than a knot.
    • Halyards
    • Traveler
    • Davit tackles 
    Abrasion. A double braid splice caries nearly all of the load on the cover on one side, and it is vulnerable near the throat. A knot breaks inside and is thus generally unaffected by wear and UV.


    Old Double Braid

    Even if a splice would be nice, old double braid rope is impossible to splice, IMHO. The solution is either a knot (obvious) or a sewn splice. These can be just as strong as a conventional splice, although they do required protection from UV and chafe. When don properly, they'll last as long as the rope. Much industrial
    splicing is sewn.

    My genoa sheets, made from a salvaged big boat halyard.  The cover is 2-inch tubular webbing. This splice is 5 years old. From "Keeping a Cruising Boat on Peanuts."



    Dynamic Rope

    The tight cover makes a splice nearly impossible. Additionally because it is dependent on both the core and the cover the s[splice is complex.  Most industrial tethers are sewn.

    This is my deck tether. 8 mm ice climbing rope.

    Thursday, January 5, 2017

    The Book Store


    Over the past eight years I’ve published more than 100 magazine articles, on topics ranging from simple product reviews to complex engineering analysis.  Lamentably, a magazine format doesn’t allow the writer to present complete ideas and the back-up they deserve. Instead, magazine style demands punchy headlines, read-at-glance text, and lots of pictures. And yet I have truly enjoyed the process of writing for magazines, the broad range of topics it suggested, and the great people I was able to work with.
    In these books I’ve gone back to my original text, before it was cut for size. I’ve added material where new research or experience suggested, and corrected a few things where the passage of time and miles of sailing have taught me better. I hope the full story will, help you solve problems, extend your sailing horizons, and encourage critical thinking about all you read and your sailing experiences.
    It’s been my pleasure.

    (The title bars will be linked to Amazon as they become available.)


    How-To books

    Keeping a Boat on Peanuts
    Pending 2017, Kindle, about 400 pages
    As much as I love sailing, putting my daughter through college and funding my 401K are more important. Transitioning from professional engineer to writer has transformed my habit of living efficiently into a passion for spreading funds thin. I like to think of it as a challenge for the imagination—it’s more fun that way.
    I’ve written over 100 equipment reviews and engineering articles for popular magazines, all based on laboratory and hands-on testing. I’ve spent 30 years learning how to maintain, fix, and upgrade. I spent 35 years as a chemical engineer and my wife thinks I live in my basement shop. The result is I’m a fair hand most crafts, never get stuck in the field with something I can’t fix, and I spread money thin. Although I've written on many topics, my wife assures me this is the one I know best. My magnum opus?

    Like the fellow on the poster, abandon all pretense of dignity, and enjoy 30 years of methods proven to keep money in your pocket.

    Rigging Modern Anchors
    Pending 2017, TBD, about 250 pages.
    In the process of researching and writing about anchors I was startled to learn just how much of what the
    traditional texts preach is just plain wrong. One writer after another parrots back the same old conventional wisdom, but very few actually take out a load cell and the measure stuff, or actually test and observe anchor rigs under high load, to see how they move. A few magazine articles skimmed the surface, but not in enough detail and I wanted to do more comprehensive testing. The result is this book, I believe the most accurate text available on rigging anchors for the cruising sailor.
    I freely admit the book has a US east coast slant. This allowed me to pack in the information you really need. Instead of chapters on Mediterranean moors and coral lagoons, I focus on soupy mud, heavy weed, impenetrable clay, shells, rocks, and thunderstorms. Our reality.



    2017, Kindle, 143 pages
    For many of us, the pull is summed up by the powerful quote from The Wind in the Willows; “Believe me, my young friend, there is nothing - absolutely nothing - half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats.” But that chapter one quotation is often stretched completely out of context, into a moral imperative to ditch all and go to sea. In fact, the very same innocent water rat, that was so taken with the river and his simple clinker-built  rowboat in Chapter 1, later spends a day with a charismatic seafaring rat in Chapter 9. Our simple, provincial water rat is so completely mesmerized by the vast and sweeping stories (exaggerated, no doubt) told by the wayfaring rat about his adventures aboard a coastal freighter, and the mysteries of the many ports of call, that immediately upon returning home he begins to plan his own departure to the sea. He tries to explain his compulsion to his friends but can't find a rational argument. He fights through fits and seizures until, in his own words, he regains his sanity.
    What most of us want is a miniature adventure that fits within the time available. More to the point, it fits our priorities. We have families ashore. We have friends. We have shore-bound interests at least as important and valid. More likely Our need to singlehand is a practical thing; “I want to go sailing. Now.”
    I’ve written this for coastal cruisers. I haven't circled the globe, but I have sailed 25,000 miles round and round the Chesapeake and along the Atlantic coast over the past 30 years, most of it alone. I’ve accumulated the practical sort of 15- to 50-mile day sort of experience that matters, navigating shoals, anchoring or docking daily, and returning to my real life after a few days to week afloat. We don't sail gold plated boats we bought from a dealer. We sail 5- to 30-year old boats and we spread our upkeep dollars thin, but without sacrificing function or safety.

    Specific thoughts for the solo sailor? Just a few. Know your limitations and stay within them—the thoughtful beginner can be safe. Be a jack of all trades—whatever fails, it’s all on you. Choose your weather and be flexible—who were you trying to impress? Go home when it’s not fun anymore.

    Faster Cruising for the Coast Sailor
    Pending 2017, Kindle, about 200 pages
    This book is about covering more miles from dawn to dusk, without running yourself ragged in the process. It’s not about racing disguised as cruising. I’m not pushing new sails, obsessive sail trim, or watch keeping routines. It certainly is not about sleep deprivation and crossing oceans.
    It is about:
    ·         Getting the most from what you’ve got.
    ·         Simple modifications that bring big benefits on small dollars.
    ·         The basics of short-handed sailing.
    ·         Efficiency in all things.
    ·         Getting where you’re going a little earlier in the day, with more time to play.
    If you want to dawdle some days that’s OK too. I’ll make it even easier.



    Cruising Guides


    2014, Kindle, 257 pages
    The writing of this book has been a 9-year labor of love, summarizing all we have learned in six circumnavigations, and all we have learned of this trip from locals and other sailors. I remain baffled by how many race around the Delmarva, rather than visiting the small places and absorbing the flavor. True, the prospect and the reality of piloting changeable inlets is intimidating, and we'll take you off the beaten path, but mostly these are places any boat could go, that had the time; I have describe both the conventional paths, and the more adventurous and rewarding alternatives.

    We brought back the details of a world known only to watermen and local sailors. I hope I have brought real life this tale; I know how deeply I enjoyed the time spent with my family.

    Tuesday, January 3, 2017

    Opening a Book Store

    I've been writing more and more these past few years, working hard at making a living doing something different from the corporate race that dominated my life for 35 years. I've written more than 100 magazine
    articles for Practical Sailor, Good Old Boat, and Sail. It's been a fun and educational process, researching all manner of sailing minutia I couldn't other wise have justified. I've been working with fascinating and knowledgeable people I wouldn't other wise have met. The minor rub is that magazines require a punchy style with lots of pictures, simple points, and minimal text. Many times I turned in a written a report that was as tightly edited as seemed possible, without cutting vital supporting detail or explanation, only to see it cut 75% with a broadsword. I didn't blame them or get sore about it. They had a page count to hit and a format to follow. But it's hard to communicate complex ideas that way.


    Books are longer. The author has the space to express finished, complete ideas, something magazines, internet forums, and blog posts never can. If an interesting rabbit hole beckons, you go down there and don't climb out until you found the bottom and figured out what it all means. For  nearly a year I've been sifting though my old article notes, doing new research to fill the holes, and well, sailing a lot and thinking about it.

    The result will be collection of books that will be dribbling out over the next few months. Most are well along, and the first new offering will be available in a few days (Singlehanded Sailing for the Coastal Sailor). Some of these will be just for Kindle, and others will be publish conventionally:

    • Circumnavigating the Delmarva Peninsula--A Guide for the Shoal Draft Cruiser. has been out there for a while, available for Kindle through Amazon, 247 pages. $6.99
    • Singlehanded Sailing for the Coastal Cruiser. I was tabulating seatime in my Coast Guard experience log, and it seems I sailed over 25,000 miles in short hops, most of it alone. Kindle through Amazon, 143 pages. $6.50
    • Rigging Modern Anchors. I've written a lot on this and done a lot more testing that never made it to print. I believe this will make it in on paper.
    • Keeping a Boat on Peanuts. If you've followed this blog you know I can spread money paper thin. But you've only see the tip of the iceberg. Kindle, about 300 pages.
    • Faster Cruising. Not the racer kinda of book, talking about laminate sails and advanced electronics. The stuff you can do with no money to get more miles into a cruise. Not all of it is about speed. Kindle, about 150 pages.

    The Book Store will show up as a blog post in a few days, and will then migrate to the top bar. A few sample chapters will likely be posted as each becomes available. Maybe you'll see something there worth either reading or recommending.

    Saturday, December 31, 2016

    Fire Blanket




    I've been doing a little research for an up-coming article on firefighting for cruisers.

    Fire prevention is the first step. I experienced a number of incipient fires in the refinery over the years and one on a boat and they all shared a common cause; chafed wire or by extension, a bad switch. Two were complicated by running the wires through the same pass-through as fuel lines; common practice, but really dumb.

    Image result for face palm e-mail graphicFire extinguisher are obvious enough. Mount them where they won't be locked by the fire and understand that once you use them you will not be able to reenter  the cabin to finish fighting the fire. Funny they never mention that rather important detail.

    I moved on to fire blankets. Not mentioned as often, rare in chandleries, but one of the best proven and simple items. Very difficult to make things worse and it will always slow the progression while you gather more materials. So I went in the basement to gather a few materials for a test; glass cloth, cotton rags, and some scraps of wool. Pulled out a torch and within a few minutes of testing came to an embarrassing "ah-ha moment:"


    Army Surplus wool blankets are fire retardant treated and won't burn. Of course they are treated. It's a war.

    So if you've got an old blanket or three in the trunk, like many of us do, now you know what it's good for.

    Wasn't that obvious?

    ----

    Wool is actually preferred for first responders and most industrial use because it is better for wrapping people and drapes better over the fire. However, fiberglass is common for house hold use because it fits in a smaller package. I'm going to make a cover for the Army blanket and use that. It really would not burn.



    Friday, December 30, 2016

    Seam Rubber

    When my daughter was very small she salvaged a walnut plaque I'd received at some conference for something or other, and gave it for a birthday, along with a few things she'd made. She said I could make something from it, having observed me make cool stuff from scraps all the time. Sweet.



    Fifteen years later I decided my sail finishing bench needed a proper seam rubber, so I scribbled up a plan (above), sawed a section out of the plaque, attacked with a number of power sanders and finally some 400 grit paper, creating a simple, traditional tool that's quite comfortable in the hand. It's a little smaller than customary, but I'm only doing repairs and after a few years of use it still feels just right.

    Better than watching re-runs.


    -----

    Can you even buy such a thing? I'm not sure. You can buy one of these for rolling seams when gluing or welding roofing seams, but the sailmakers I've watched all have the home made sort.

    MARSHALLTOWN The Premier Line E54D 2-Inch Flat Commercial Grade Solid Rubber Seam Roller with DuraSoft Handle

    Wednesday, December 28, 2016

    Never Remove the Lifelines

    And what about the insensitive _____ that's filming it all. The guy is actually in real trouble.

    Saturday, December 24, 2016

    Mildew Treatment for Pennies

    The great myth of boat ownership--other than believing that everything takes 3 times as long and costs 4 times as much as you expect--is that mildew is ubiquitous. No matter how leak tight, no matter how well maintained it is always there. Well, I disagree wholeheartedly, and I challenge anyone to find any in my cabin. How have I dodged this scourge?

    First, keep the boat leak-tight. That means no water in the bilge and no leaks around deck hardware. Not that hard if you mount things right. Strong enough so they don't move, bedded with polyurethane caulk or butyl rubber.

    Second, if there is a leak that starts some growth, treat it right. In fact, I've learned far more at home, cleaning a basement that has fallen victim to occasional flooding, than around boats. The key is a cleaner with the following characteristics:
    • Controlled alkaline pH. Mold and mildew prefer slightly acid conditions. While vinegar has a faithful following, I was able to demonstrate in head-to-head testing that in damp conditions that alkaline treatments are more effective.
    • No food. Again, vinegar is a problem because it becomes mildew food when the damp returns and can actually actually accelerate growth. Likewise soaps and detergents are a problem; the mildew uses them as food.
    • Can be left in place and NOT rinsed off. Or rather the rinse must contain the inhibitor. For this reason, do NOT increase the dosage in the hope that more is better. It isn't.
    • Contains an additional agent that is toxic to mildew. In the second formula, borax is a powerful anti-mold and anti-bacterial.
    • Not bleach. While bleach can be effective on the surface, it is damaging to many surfaces, first as bleach, and then when it dries, because the pH is far too high.

    You could troop down to Home Depot and pay many dollars per gallon for pennies worth of chemical in a bottle. Plastic, shipping, mark-up and and paying for know how all cost. Of you could simply brew up something proven to be more effective.

    Unlike bleach, both of these formulas require some scrubbing. Some pre-soak time helps, killing the organisms and loosening the bonds. After that, a little elbow grease. If you need to rinse, remember to re-treat to provide protection from re-infection.
    -------

     Concrobium is a top performer in many independent tests.It is also dead simple, easily formulated from stuff you can get at stores you already go to.

    DIY Concrobium knock-off formula
    • 1 quart hot water
    • 1 tablespoon baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
    • 2 tablespoons washing soda (sodium carbonate)
    • 2 tablespoons trisodium phosphate (TSP)
    This works better than all of the commercial formulas on natural fibers and 90% of the commercial formulas on synthetics (there are a few specialty formulas based in silicone quatrenary amines that are more effective on synthetics). But in head-to-head testing using canvas strips in special mildew chambers and on old PFDs I treated in strips and then left under a backyard shed, the clear winner was always a borax-based cleaner of my own formulation. Again, the key is to maintain the correct concentrations, don't add any detergent, which will only become mildew food, and then leave the final rinse of this treatment to dry in place. For most cleaning, all the is required is to spray the area until wet, scrub vigorously, and wipe off the excess.


    Borax Mildew Treatment
    •  1 quart hot water
    • 2 tablespoons baking soda
    • 2 tablespoons Borax
    • 1 tablespoon TSP

     Before

    6 months later


       This has been a lifesaver on wet basement carpets. Last time we had a flood I had injured my back and was unable to get the carpet cleaner out for several weeks. It had begun to reek of mildew. However, going over the carpet with this borax formula, once as a cleaner, and then a second time as a rinse, not only removed most of the mud and mildew, but also killed the smell and prevented all growth, even though the carpet stayed wet for a few more days. The stuff is a miracle.

      BTW, it is also very effective for cleaning mildewed drywall before painting. The mildew will be killed, it will not return, and the residue will not affect paint adhesion.

      Why is not sold in the stores? One reason is that claiming it kills mildew would require registering it as a pesticide. So long as common chemicals like borax are sold as generic they are exempt, but the moment you formulate and make claims, the regulatory status changes.

      But the real answer is that I don't know. I can only assume that the sellers of cleaning agents believe folks will buy a bleach based quick-clean product, but can't understand the benefits of prevention. They may be right. But I think sailors can understand.

      So this is my gift to you for the holiday season. The most effective anti-mildew cleaner avialabe for pennies. Enjoy.

      Merry Christmas!

      Wednesday, December 14, 2016

      Drowning like a Gentleman

      (Inspired by a John Vigor post, October 2013)

      (What got me thinking about this? I think it's the cold water and sort survival times that come with winter sailing.)
      Image result for coast guard rescue storm

      Most--I think far too many--sailors believe it is their right to be rescued when they get into trouble at sea, no matter the conditions, risk to rescuers, or the extent of their culpability.

      I read of a rescue in not-terrible weather, where forum experts question the validity of calling for rescue before the boat is actually sinking. Often the boat is disabled, the weather expected to deteriorate, and rescue is much safer right now than later. I'm pretty sure the Coast Guard likes that better. Even the insurance company would rather buy a boat than face wrongful death liability claims from the families of passengers.


      I spent many years climbing in the mountains, often far from any realist hope of rescue. Not that it would help much after you augured-in from 1000 feet up. I wasn't expecting help, and often we would back off on climbs that wouldn't scare us near the road. We had to be 100% certain of success, not pretty sure, since even a sprained ankle could get you killed. And perhaps this is why I never had an epic in all of those years of climbing. I respected that the line between climbing in-control and dead was not that broad.

       the rescue people.’ ”
      “Blondie Hasler, one of the founders of the OSTAR, would probably not approve of this equipment [the EPIRB] since he was against any competitor making use of rescue services. He has been quoted as saying, a competitor who got into trouble  ‘ . . .  should have the decency to drown like a gentleman and not bother 

      "Hasler was not entirely joking. The feeling was quite prevalent among ocean cruisers in the 1970s. Eric Hiscock said much the same thing in print, and never carried an EPIRB on any of his circumnavigations. He believed that people who worked on the sea in a professional capacity were fully entitled to any rescue services available, but he thought that people who went to sea by choice, for their own personal pleasure, should never expect others to risk their lives to save them when they got into trouble. Self sufficiency was the watchword, combined with a very stiff upper lip."


      Yeah, if I were crossing oceans I'd pack an EPIRB and sat phone, but I also know I'd feel damn guilty about pushing the button or placing a call under conditions that put others at serious risk.  As coastal sailor I have very little sympathy for many that get in trouble near shore while tempting weather that they just shouldn't have. They could have waited. They could have taken the inside passage. They read about daring do, but didn't actually absorb the seriousness of the situation. They wanted an adventure, but didn't grasp that in a true adventure the outcome is uncertain. 

      But it's been that way for centuries. The Donner Party comes to mind; city folk that figured they could bend nature to their will and their schedule. Oops.


      Saturday, December 10, 2016

      Boat Portraits




       -On watercolour... The only virtue to it, is to put down an idea about what you feel at the moment.
         (Andrew Wyeth)

      -On beauty... If you foolishly ignore beauty, you'll soon find yourself without it. Your life will be impoverished. But if you wisely invest in beauty, it will remain with you all the days of your life. 

        (Frank Loyd Wright)


      From a purely practical perspective, a boat is a tool to take you places. You can visit small towns, where it becomes your water front hotel. Anchored in a cove it becomes a secluded cabin, a fishing and kayaking camp, a romantic get away, or a family outing. But at least 50 % of our motivation comes from somewhere in the heart, where we just like the way it looks, just lying there but ready to take us anywhere. We envision what she looks like under sail, but we never get to see, that. We want to share the emotion with friends, but unless they are sailors, it's impossible to convey in a cold photograph.

       Bugey sailing near Cape May, New Jersey. This was done on commission for the owner and is a composite of a number of photographs.

      The artist, on the other hand, is not so constrained by the situation. The light can changed, a favorite background substituted, an her best attitude presented, conveying how you see her.

      The feeling of special places and homes come alive as well.


      A few photographs, an idea, and the artist's eye can preserve this feeling forever. Sailing feels a bit like flying, but not everyone feels it.


      Ken Frye -- Artist

      703-573-5922